Selection¶
Integrated haplotype score (IHS)¶

allel.
ihs
(h, pos, map_pos=None, min_ehh=0.05, min_maf=0.05, include_edges=False, gap_scale=20000, max_gap=200000, is_accessible=None, use_threads=True)[source]¶ Compute the unstandardized integrated haplotype score (IHS) for each variant, comparing integrated haplotype homozygosity between the reference (0) and alternate (1) alleles.
Parameters:  h : array_like, int, shape (n_variants, n_haplotypes)
Haplotype array.
 pos : array_like, int, shape (n_variants,)
Variant positions (physical distance).
 map_pos : array_like, float, shape (n_variants,)
Variant positions (genetic map distance).
 min_ehh: float, optional
Minimum EHH beyond which to truncate integrated haplotype homozygosity calculation.
 min_maf : float, optional
Do not compute integrated haplotype homozogysity for variants with minor allele frequency below this value.
 include_edges : bool, optional
If True, report scores even if EHH does not decay below min_ehh before reaching the edge of the data.
 gap_scale : int, optional
Rescale distance between variants if gap is larger than this value.
 max_gap : int, optional
Do not report scores if EHH spans a gap larger than this number of base pairs.
 is_accessible : array_like, bool, optional
Genome accessibility array. If provided, distance between variants will be computed as the number of accessible bases between them.
 use_threads : bool, optional
If True use multiple threads to compute.
Returns:  score : ndarray, float, shape (n_variants,)
Unstandardized IHS scores.
See also
Notes
This function will calculate IHS for all variants. To exclude variants below a given minor allele frequency, filter the input haplotype array before passing to this function.
This function computes IHS comparing the reference and alternate alleles. These can be polarised by switching the sign for any variant where the reference allele is derived.
This function returns NaN for any IHS calculations where haplotype homozygosity does not decay below min_ehh before reaching the first or last variant. To disable this behaviour, set include_edges to True.
Note that the unstandardized score is returned. Usually these scores are then standardized in different allele frequency bins.
Crosspopulation extended haplotype homozygosity (XPEHH)¶

allel.
xpehh
(h1, h2, pos, map_pos=None, min_ehh=0.05, include_edges=False, gap_scale=20000, max_gap=200000, is_accessible=None, use_threads=True)[source]¶ Compute the unstandardized crosspopulation extended haplotype homozygosity score (XPEHH) for each variant.
Parameters:  h1 : array_like, int, shape (n_variants, n_haplotypes)
Haplotype array for the first population.
 h2 : array_like, int, shape (n_variants, n_haplotypes)
Haplotype array for the second population.
 pos : array_like, int, shape (n_variants,)
Variant positions on physical or genetic map.
 map_pos : array_like, float, shape (n_variants,)
Variant positions (genetic map distance).
 min_ehh: float, optional
Minimum EHH beyond which to truncate integrated haplotype homozygosity calculation.
 include_edges : bool, optional
If True, report scores even if EHH does not decay below min_ehh before reaching the edge of the data.
 gap_scale : int, optional
Rescale distance between variants if gap is larger than this value.
 max_gap : int, optional
Do not report scores if EHH spans a gap larger than this number of base pairs.
 is_accessible : array_like, bool, optional
Genome accessibility array. If provided, distance between variants will be computed as the number of accessible bases between them.
 use_threads : bool, optional
If True use multiple threads to compute.
Returns:  score : ndarray, float, shape (n_variants,)
Unstandardized XPEHH scores.
See also
Notes
This function will calculate XPEHH for all variants. To exclude variants below a given minor allele frequency, filter the input haplotype arrays before passing to this function.
This function returns NaN for any EHH calculations where haplotype homozygosity does not decay below min_ehh before reaching the first or last variant. To disable this behaviour, set include_edges to True.
Note that the unstandardized score is returned. Usually these scores are then standardized genomewide.
Haplotype arrays from the two populations may have different numbers of haplotypes.
Number of segregating sites by length (NSL)¶

allel.
nsl
(h, use_threads=True)[source]¶ Compute the unstandardized number of segregating sites by length (nSl) for each variant, comparing the reference and alternate alleles, after FerrerAdmetlla et al. (2014).
Parameters:  h : array_like, int, shape (n_variants, n_haplotypes)
Haplotype array.
 use_threads : bool, optional
If True use multiple threads to compute.
Returns:  score : ndarray, float, shape (n_variants,)
See also
Notes
This function will calculate nSl for all variants. To exclude variants below a given minor allele frequency, filter the input haplotype array before passing to this function.
This function computes nSl by comparing the reference and alternate alleles. These can be polarised by switching the sign for any variant where the reference allele is derived.
This function does nothing about nSl calculations where haplotype homozygosity extends up to the first or last variant. There may be edge effects.
Note that the unstandardized score is returned. Usually these scores are then standardized in different allele frequency bins.

allel.
xpnsl
(h1, h2, use_threads=True)[source]¶ Crosspopulation version of the NSL statistic.
Parameters:  h1 : array_like, int, shape (n_variants, n_haplotypes)
Haplotype array for the first population.
 h2 : array_like, int, shape (n_variants, n_haplotypes)
Haplotype array for the second population.
 use_threads : bool, optional
If True use multiple threads to compute.
Returns:  score : ndarray, float, shape (n_variants,)
Unstandardized XPNSL scores.
Haplotype diversity, Garud’s H statistics¶

allel.
garud_h
(h)[source]¶ Compute the H1, H12, H123 and H2/H1 statistics for detecting signatures of soft sweeps, as defined in Garud et al. (2015).
Parameters:  h : array_like, int, shape (n_variants, n_haplotypes)
Haplotype array.
Returns:  h1 : float
H1 statistic (sum of squares of haplotype frequencies).
 h12 : float
H12 statistic (sum of squares of haplotype frequencies, combining the two most common haplotypes into a single frequency).
 h123 : float
H123 statistic (sum of squares of haplotype frequencies, combining the three most common haplotypes into a single frequency).
 h2_h1 : float
H2/H1 statistic, indicating the “softness” of a sweep.

allel.
moving_garud_h
(h, size, start=0, stop=None, step=None)[source]¶ Compute the H1, H12, H123 and H2/H1 statistics for detecting signatures of soft sweeps, as defined in Garud et al. (2015), in moving windows,
Parameters:  h : array_like, int, shape (n_variants, n_haplotypes)
Haplotype array.
 size : int
The window size (number of variants).
 start : int, optional
The index at which to start.
 stop : int, optional
The index at which to stop.
 step : int, optional
The number of variants between start positions of windows. If not given, defaults to the window size, i.e., nonoverlapping windows.
Returns:  h1 : ndarray, float, shape (n_windows,)
H1 statistics (sum of squares of haplotype frequencies).
 h12 : ndarray, float, shape (n_windows,)
H12 statistics (sum of squares of haplotype frequencies, combining the two most common haplotypes into a single frequency).
 h123 : ndarray, float, shape (n_windows,)
H123 statistics (sum of squares of haplotype frequencies, combining the three most common haplotypes into a single frequency).
 h2_h1 : ndarray, float, shape (n_windows,)
H2/H1 statistics, indicating the “softness” of a sweep.

allel.
haplotype_diversity
(h)[source]¶ Estimate haplotype diversity.
Parameters:  h : array_like, int, shape (n_variants, n_haplotypes)
Haplotype array.
Returns:  hd : float
Haplotype diversity.

allel.
moving_haplotype_diversity
(h, size, start=0, stop=None, step=None)[source]¶ Estimate haplotype diversity in moving windows.
Parameters:  h : array_like, int, shape (n_variants, n_haplotypes)
Haplotype array.
 size : int
The window size (number of variants).
 start : int, optional
The index at which to start.
 stop : int, optional
The index at which to stop.
 step : int, optional
The number of variants between start positions of windows. If not given, defaults to the window size, i.e., nonoverlapping windows.
Returns:  hd : ndarray, float, shape (n_windows,)
Haplotype diversity.
Population branching statistic (PBS)¶

allel.
pbs
(ac1, ac2, ac3, window_size, window_start=0, window_stop=None, window_step=None, normed=True)[source]¶ Compute the population branching statistic (PBS) which performs a comparison of allele frequencies between three populations to detect genome regions that are unusually differentiated in one population relative to the other two populations.
Parameters:  ac1 : array_like, int
Allele counts from the first population.
 ac2 : array_like, int
Allele counts from the second population.
 ac3 : array_like, int
Allele counts from the third population.
 window_size : int
The window size (number of variants) within which to compute PBS values.
 window_start : int, optional
The variant index at which to start windowed calculations.
 window_stop : int, optional
The variant index at which to stop windowed calculations.
 window_step : int, optional
The number of variants between start positions of windows. If not given, defaults to the window size, i.e., nonoverlapping windows.
 normed : bool, optional
If True (default), use the normalised version of PBS, also known as PBSn1 [2]. Otherwise, use the PBS statistic as originally defined in [1].
Returns:  pbs : ndarray, float
Windowed PBS values.
Notes
The F:sub:ST calculations use Hudson’s estimator.
References
[1] (1, 2) Yi et al., “Sequencing of Fifty Human Exomes Reveals Adaptation to High Altitude”, Science, 329(5987): 75–78, 2 July 2010. [2] (1, 2) Malaspinas et al., “A genomic history of Aboriginal Australia”, Nature. volume 538, pages 207–214, 13 October 2016.
Delta Tajima’s D¶

allel.
moving_delta_tajima_d
(ac1, ac2, size, start=0, stop=None, step=None)[source]¶ Compute the difference in Tajima’s D between two populations in moving windows.
Parameters:  ac1 : array_like, int, shape (n_variants, n_alleles)
Allele counts array for the first population.
 ac2 : array_like, int, shape (n_variants, n_alleles)
Allele counts array for the second population.
 size : int
The window size (number of variants).
 start : int, optional
The index at which to start.
 stop : int, optional
The index at which to stop.
 step : int, optional
The number of variants between start positions of windows. If not given, defaults to the window size, i.e., nonoverlapping windows.
Returns:  delta_d : ndarray, float, shape (n_windows,)
Standardized delta Tajima’s D.
See also
allel.stats.diversity.moving_tajima_d
Utilities and plotting functions¶

allel.
standardize_by_allele_count
(score, aac, bins=None, n_bins=None, diagnostics=True)[source]¶ Standardize score within allele frequency bins.
Parameters:  score : array_like, float
The score to be standardized, e.g., IHS or NSL.
 aac : array_like, int
An array of alternate allele counts.
 bins : array_like, int, optional
Allele count bins, overrides n_bins.
 n_bins : int, optional
Number of allele count bins to use.
 diagnostics : bool, optional
If True, plot some diagnostic information about the standardization.
Returns:  score_standardized : ndarray, float
Standardized scores.
 bins : ndarray, int
Allele count bins used for standardization.

allel.
ehh_decay
(h, truncate=False)[source]¶ Compute the decay of extended haplotype homozygosity (EHH) moving away from the first variant.
Parameters:  h : array_like, int, shape (n_variants, n_haplotypes)
Haplotype array.
 truncate : bool, optional
If True, the return array will exclude trailing zeros.
Returns:  ehh : ndarray, float, shape (n_variants, )
EHH at successive variants from the first variant.

allel.
voight_painting
(h)[source]¶ Paint haplotypes, assigning a unique integer to each shared haplotype prefix.
Parameters:  h : array_like, int, shape (n_variants, n_haplotypes)
Haplotype array.
Returns:  painting : ndarray, int, shape (n_variants, n_haplotypes)
Painting array.
 indices : ndarray, int, shape (n_hapotypes,)
Haplotype indices after sorting by prefix.

allel.
plot_voight_painting
(painting, palette='colorblind', flank='right', ax=None, height_factor=0.01)[source]¶ Plot a painting of shared haplotype prefixes.
Parameters:  painting : array_like, int, shape (n_variants, n_haplotypes)
Painting array.
 ax : axes, optional
The axes on which to draw. If not provided, a new figure will be created.
 palette : string, optional
A Seaborn palette name.
 flank : {‘right’, ‘left’}, optional
If left, painting will be reversed along first axis.
 height_factor : float, optional
If no axes provided, determine height of figure by multiplying height of painting array by this number.
Returns:  ax : axes

allel.
fig_voight_painting
(h, index=None, palette='colorblind', height_factor=0.01, fig=None)[source]¶ Make a figure of shared haplotype prefixes for both left and right flanks, centred on some variant of choice.
Parameters:  h : array_like, int, shape (n_variants, n_haplotypes)
Haplotype array.
 index : int, optional
Index of the variant within the haplotype array to centre on. If not provided, the middle variant will be used.
 palette : string, optional
A Seaborn palette name.
 height_factor : float, optional
If no axes provided, determine height of figure by multiplying height of painting array by this number.
 fig : figure
The figure on which to draw. If not provided, a new figure will be created.
Returns:  fig : figure
Notes
N.B., the ordering of haplotypes on the left and right flanks will be different. This means that haplotypes on the right flank will not correspond to haplotypes on the left flank at the same vertical position.

allel.
plot_haplotype_frequencies
(h, palette='Paired', singleton_color='w', ax=None)[source]¶ Plot haplotype frequencies.
Parameters:  h : array_like, int, shape (n_variants, n_haplotypes)
Haplotype array.
 palette : string, optional
A Seaborn palette name.
 singleton_color : string, optional
Color to paint singleton haplotypes.
 ax : axes, optional
The axes on which to draw. If not provided, a new figure will be created.
Returns:  ax : axes

allel.
plot_moving_haplotype_frequencies
(pos, h, size, start=0, stop=None, n=None, palette='Paired', singleton_color='w', ax=None)[source]¶ Plot haplotype frequencies in moving windows over the genome.
Parameters:  pos : array_like, int, shape (n_items,)
Variant positions, using 1based coordinates, in ascending order.
 h : array_like, int, shape (n_variants, n_haplotypes)
Haplotype array.
 size : int
The window size (number of variants).
 start : int, optional
The index at which to start.
 stop : int, optional
The index at which to stop.
 n : int, optional
Color only the n most frequent haplotypes (by default, all nonsingleton haplotypes are colored).
 palette : string, optional
A Seaborn palette name.
 singleton_color : string, optional
Color to paint singleton haplotypes.
 ax : axes, optional
The axes on which to draw. If not provided, a new figure will be created.
Returns:  ax : axes